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美丽山水城市建设的时代意义与发展前景

作者: 张义丰 日期: 2019-04-10 文章来源:gd视讯_gd视讯平台-「开户首充送大礼」 浏览次数: 字号: [ ]

摘 要:

gd视讯chengshishiguojiawenmingdejujigaodi,meilizhongguobiranyoumeilishanshuichengshi。woguodechengshiyushanshuiyouguan。huoyishan,huobangshui,huozuoyongshanshui,youshanshuihuyou。youshanyoushui,shizhongguochengshidejingdianyangshi;leshanleshui,shizhonghuachuantongwenhuasuobiaodadeqingcaoheshenmei。

1. meilishanshuichengshitixianzaichengshijingjiyuwenhuadefanhua,tixianzailiuguangyicaideyeyoujingji, tixianzaiguseguxiangjizhuxiangchoudelishijiequ,yetixianzaiwangshanjianshuiniaoyuhuaxiangdegongyuanlvdi。

gd视讯2. meilishanshuichengshitixianzaixiuwaihuizhongdezhihuilingyu,chengshijiansheyushanshuihuxiangronghe、zhengtixiediao,bingyinshanshuijiaorongerdailaichongfendechengshilvhuahuanjing;tixianzaichengshiyanzhi,zunzhongziranshengtai, shunyingrenwenwenhua,shengtaianquanyuhuanjinglianghao。

3. meilishanshuichengshitixianzaijiankangyangsheng,duoyuanhuoli。chengshishengtai、jingjihewenhuadengduoyuanxitongdegongsheng,shitishengchengshihuolidefadongji,yeshichengshibukehuoquede“meizhiyuan”。

4. meilishanshuichengshitixianzaizhenshanzhenshui、yuanzhiyuanwei。meizaizhenshi,meizaiduoyang,meizaizhengti。jianchengyushanshuizhijian,shixianxingzhededazhihui,dashenmei。huchengyushanshuiwenming,shidangdairendedaxuanze, dashoubi。

5. meilishanshuichengshitixianzairendihexie,ziranyurenwengongshengdezhigaojingjie。diyushibiedute, chengshifazhangexingtuchu,shiminxingfuanjuleye。jingzhongshanxingshuishi,chuanchenglishiwenhua,chongmanrenwenguanhuai。

 

一、美丽中国建设是国家意志

gd视讯congdangdeshibadadaoshijiuda,meilizhongguocongtichudaojiakuaishishi,yijingchengweiguojiaheshehuiguangfanguanzhudehuati。yishengtaiwenminglilundengweichuanchengzhuxiandemeilizhongguodelilunyijushizaishijiandejianyanxianinglianerchengde,shizhidaozhongguoshengtaiwenmingjianshehekechixufazhandeduizhengliangfang。

美丽中国建设目标在于天人合一,在于尽善尽美,在于物质需要和精神需要、自然美态和人文美态的契合,在于为人民创造良好生产生活环境,为全球生态安全作出贡献。我国这一庄严承诺,不仅体现了党和国家对美丽中国建设的高度重视,也回应了新时代人民对美好生活的期许期盼。一是美丽中国彰显了生态文明建设的价值定位,集中体现了国家发展理念的重大创新;二是美丽中国既是生态文明的要求, 也是中国新型工业化的必然结果, 是自然生态和经济活动和谐互动的理想状态;三是美丽中国既是对当代中国发展方位的集中概括, 又是对中国未来发展方向的整体承诺[1]

1. 美丽中国具有时代的创新品格

meilizhongguojianshebunengjintingliuzai“lvshuiqingshan”debiaoxiangcengmian,gengyaoguanzhugaozhiliang“lvse”fazhanwenti, bujinyaozheyanyuwentidaoxiangxingdehuanjingzhiliwenti,gengyaozheyanyuxingershangdehuanjingjiazhizhuiwen。

2. 美丽中国具有问题导向的实践路径

meilizhongguoyihuanjingzhiliwentizuoweiluojiqidian,jutizhixiangjiushiyingxiangmeilizhongguojianshedejutihuanjingwuranwenti,baokuozheixiewentidexianxingneirongjiqiyuanyintanjiu。

3. 美丽中国具有统筹谋划的统一认证

meilizhongguojiansheyaoqianghualilunyanjiu,zengqianglilundechanshili、tuidongliheyindaoli,cujinlilunyushijiandeyoujijiehe,kexueyanpan,jingzhunfenxi, weijiangouyouliangdegonggongzhengcebaozhangtixitigongqianglizhichi。

4. 美丽中国强调人民为中心发展导向

huanjingwentishiguominzuizhijie、zuixianshi、zuihexindeliyiwenti,jiguanhuminshengfuzhi,youguanhuguominshenxinjiankang,gengguanhurenleiwuzhongyanxu。meilizhongguojixuyaoduiziranqingjingdeziranmiaoshu,haixuyaoyirenminweizhongxindefazhandaoxiangrenzhi。

5. 美丽中国强化可持续发展实践原则

yaojianchiwentidaoxiang,miaozhunyingxiangshengtaihuanjingfazhandezhengjiewenti,bamaiwenzhen,jingzhunfenxi,kexuechouhua,jianchichuangxinqudongfazhan,jianchilvsejingji、shengtaijingjifazhan,zoukechixufazhandedaolu。

6. 美丽中国兑现大国责任担当的承诺

meilizhongguojianshezhanxianguojiaqinghuai、guojiayizhiheguojiajingshen,youzhuyuyindaoyingduiqihoubianhuaguojiahezuo,rangchengshijianshechengweiquanqiushengtaiwenmingjianshedezhongyaocanyuzhe、gongxianzheheyinlingzhe,zhanxianzhongguopinzhi、zhongguodandanghezhongguozuowei。

 

二、美丽城市建设背景与缘起

美丽城市就是要把生态建设融入到经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设各方面和全过程,实现生态自然美、人文特色美、经济活力美、社会和谐美、政治清明美、生活幸福美,彰显城市自身特色,满足人的全面发展需求。美丽城市是充分体现人与自然、人与社会、人与人三重关系的美丽和谐城市[2]

jianshemeilichengshishituijinzhongguoshengtaiwenmingjianshedezhengquelujingdaoxiang,juyouzhongdadexianshiyiyihezhangyuandezhanlveyiyi。meilichengshishiyigetongchouyuzonghefazhandegainian,baohanzhemeilideziran、meilidechengshihemeilidexiangcun。zaimeilizhongguomubiaozhiyinxia,meilichengshiyijingchengweizhongguochengshidemeihaoyuanjing,yezhujianchengweiwoguochengshifazhanhezhuanxingdegongshi。

1. 美丽城市建设的科学价值

jianshemeilichengshishichengshifazhanguilvherenleixuqiuxiangjiehedeziranchanwu,yeshimeilizhongguojianshedezhongyaozuchengbufen。

gd视讯jianshemeilichengshi,jikeyifengfuhewanshanchengshifazhanlilun,tuijinlilunchuangxin;younengcujinquyujingjixue、chengshiguanli、jishuchuangxindengxiangguanxuekehelilunderonghe。

jianshemeilichengshi,youzhuyutuijinxinxingchengzhenhuajianshe,tigaochengshijumindeshenghuozhiliang,cujinchengshishehuishengchanshenghuofangshijinyibuyouhua,youliyuzengqiangchengshidejingzhengli,tigaochengshidezhimingduhemeiyudu,tishengrenminqunzhongdexingfuganhehuodegan。

jianshemeilichengshi,youzhuyutuidongchengshijiandingbuyidiguanchechuangxin、xiediao、lvse、kaifang、gongxiangdefazhanlinian, jiakuaijueshengquanmianxiaokang、jiansheshanshuichengshi,juyouzhongyaodeyiyihezuoyong。

2. 建设全国美丽城市的路径

gd视讯meilichengshideneihanshifenfengfu, jianshequanguomeilichengshi,bixuyoudefangshi,lizuzishentese,zhaozhunbijiaoyoushi,dazaojingzhengyoushi,gouzhufazhanyoushi,bimianchengshijiantongzhihuajingzheng,shixianchayihuafazhan,xingcheng“gemeiqimei、meimeiyugong”detesefazhanzhilu。

zheijiuxuyaobawohaoyixiasigefangmian: yishimingquemeilichengshimubiaodingwei, ershizhidingmeilichengshijianshezhanlveguihua, sanshigoujianmeilichengshipingjiazhibiaotixi, sishituichumeilichengshijianshedexingdongcelve。qizhong,xingdongcelvetixianweiwugefangmian: lingdaoshiguanjian,guihuashiqianti, wenhuashilinghun,jingjishiwuzhijichu, jianquanzhidushibaozhang。

 

三、美丽山水城市理论基础

gd视讯meilishanshuichengshidejianshemude, keyicongsangefangmianlaichanshu: yishizaihongguancengmianshangzhenduichengshifanchou,congchengshiguihuakaishi,kongzhichengshidefazhanzhengtigeju;ershizaizhongguancengmianshangzhenduiyongdifanchou,tongguochengshiyongdibuju, tixianchengshizishendeshanshuihuanjingtese; sanshizaiweiguancengmianshangzhenduijingguanfanchou, zhuzhongduichengshiwenhuadebiaoda。

zaizhongguodechuantongwenhuazhong,“shanshui”shizirandezuigaodaibiao,“tianrenheyi”shichuantongzhexuedegaodugaikuo,“fatianxiangdi”shichuantongfengshuililundeshenkezongjie,shiqinghuayishichuantongyishumeixuedeshencengjingjie。zaicijichushang,qianxuesenxianshengtichude“shanshuichengshi”linian, dedaoleguangfandezhongshiherenke,qililunheshijianzhengzaibuduanfazhan。

1. 发展历程

gd视讯“shanshuichengshi”lilundetichuhexingchengjingguolesangefazhanjieduan。

yishililuntichujieduan。qianxuesenyu1990 niantichu,bazhongguoshanshuishici、gudianyuanlinjianzhuheshanshuihuaronghezaiyiqi,chuangli“shanshuichengshi”degainian。

gd视讯ershilinianchengxingjieduan。qianxuesendui“shanshuichengshi”yingjianliluntixijinxingleshuli,baokuo“shanshuichengshi”degainian、fazhanguocheng、zhongguochuantongyuzhouguanjishanshuishihuaduirenjuhuanjingyingjiandeyingxiang,congchengshixuanzhi、kongjiangejuyingzao、shenmeiyijingdebiaodasangefangmianlezongjieshanshuichengshiderenjuyingjiancelve,wei“shanshuichengshi”defazhandiandinglelilunjichu。tabiaoshi,“shanshuichengshi”shichengshijianshedezuigaojingjie、zuigaomubiao。

gd视讯sanshililunshenhuajieduan。xueshujiecongbutonglingyujiaoduchufa,jubanleduociyouguanxueshuhuiyi,tuidongle“shanshuichengshi”lilundefazhan,tuichuleyipiyanjiuchengguo,tigonglezhongyaodelilunyushijiancankaojiazhi。

2.“山水无界”

“shanshuiwujie”jiangshanshuilinianrongruchengshifazhan,wuyiweishanshuichengshijianshezhurulexindehuoli。

山水思想,体现的是对自然环境的尊重、对美的提炼和对精神文化的追求。即城市在形态布局上应与山水要素、景观格局相互渗透与配合,在建筑、道路设计上应保护传统的自然山水城市格局,在景观上应以自然山水为背景和依托形成良好的呼应,铸造人与自然高度和谐的人居环境[3]

古代山水城市格局,所要表达的不仅是物质空间概念,更是 “情”“意”“气”的文化内涵和城市气质。一是突出“天人合一” 的生态哲学,二是强调中国古典园林艺术,三是保持自然与人文特性并存,四是重点对山水城市环境格局构成要素考量,五是强化对城市格局尺度的考量,六是特别强调设施建设要完善山水格局,七是整体把控城市立体空间的视觉效果[4]

将自然山水引入城市,完全符合“国必依山水”的古训。以城市与自然的关系为切人点,倡导“与古为新”“重新进人自然” 以及“城市中的自然与诗意”。在高密度城市中引入自然模式, 将城市地理密度与功能和山水意境结合,构建以人的精神和文化价值观为核心的未来城市[5],是学术界探索方向和趋势。

3. 理论核心

shanshuichengshililunyanjiudezhuyaoyaosushishan、shui、chengdeguanxi,shandeshuierhuo,shuideshanerzhuang,chengdeshuierling。

(1)shandishimeilishanshuichengshidegenji。

shandishidiqiushengmingzhichengxitongdeyoujizuchengbufen,tajizhongyaoyoucuiruo, jiyunzangzhejudadeqianliyucaifu,youchongmangezhongmaodunyuwenti,xuyaojinshenkaifayubaohu。

congzuizaode“chengyishanerjian”, dao“chengkuashanfazhan”,daomuqianxingcheng“shanchengjiaorong”,chengshiyushandidekongjianguanxitixianlejinshan、yishan、baoshan、rongshandelinianbianhuaguocheng。

山地城市建设必须遵循“依山就势,因地制宜”的基本原则, 根据项目业态、城市文态与地形地貌关系,合理进行场地布局与形态塑造[6]。这些布局结构有组团式布局、带状式布局、串连式布局、星座式布局、团块状布局等。

gd视讯shandichengshidekongjiantuozhanhegongnengzuzhi,yingcaiyong“lvping”zutuanshibujumoshi,yiziranshantixingchenglvsepingzhang,tongguohuadingshengtaibaohuhongxian,yankongkaifajianshedewuxumanyan,tongshichuangxinkaifamoshihuanjiejiansheyongdiziyuanjinzhangwenti,shixianshandichengshi“shengchan、shenghuo、shengtai”kongjianxiangcunrongqia、gedeqisuodefazhanmubiao。

gd视讯shandichengshiyaoxiangshixian“shanchengxiangrong”,jiuyaokongzhishantiquyukaifajianshede“rongliang”,kongzhishantizhoubianjianshedegaoduyu“rongji”,datongshantishixianlangdao,xianshanlucui。

gd视讯(2)shuishimeilishanshuichengshidelinghun。

shuishishanshuichengshijianshedelinghun, chengshijingguan、shengtai、xiuqihewenhuasidagongnengdouyunhanzheshui。

shuijingguangongneng: jiangchengshiyushanshui、lvdi、ziranxitongrongweiyiti,yingzaoyirenjingguan。shuiwenhuajuyouziranxingherenwenxing,qiziranshuxingshiqijuyoukeshixing,qirenwenyuansushiqijuyouyuyueshenxindegongyong。shanshuichengshijianshejiangshanmaiheshuitizuoweifenjiexian,bashanshuizhijiandelianxizuoweilangdao,barengongchengshizuoweijizhi,jiangsanzhekanzuoyigexianghulianxidezhengti,zhezhonghedao、binshuididai、shuishangyuledengshuitikongjian,yidadao“buchuchengguoerhuoshanshuizhiyi,shenjunaoshieryoulingquanzhizhi”dexiaoguo。

shuishengtaigongneng: liyongziranshanshuidezutuanzuoyong,yingzaochengshideshengtaizhimei。chengshishuixitongjishishengtaiminganquyu,youshishengtaicuiruoqu,ruguochulibuhao,jiyizaochengchengshidizhizaihai。shanshuichengshijiansheyaozengjiashuitiduoyangxing, huifuziranxingheliu,baohushuishengshengwuduoyangxing;huifuheliuyuwadi、huzhaodegoutong,baohushidi,huifubutongshuishenheliusudeshentan、qiantan、shazhoudeng, zengjiashuiliudeduoyangxing。

shuixiuqigongneng: dazaobinshuikongjianmanzurenduiyuziranshanshuideshenmeixuqiu。chengshishuikongjianbaokuobinshuigongyuan、guangchang、qinshuijianzhu、sheshideng,youxiedifangjiangshuiwenhuahelishiyicun、renwenjingguanyouxiaozhenghe,tishengshuiwenhuaneihan,haikeyiyouxiaotuidongxinxingyetaidefazhan。

水传承功能: 发挥水文化遗产文化功能,满足人们的精神文化需求。山水城市建设要协调历史文化保护和城市建设的关系, 继承和展示传统历史文化和山水城市特色。如果城市自然、历史人文资源丰富,山、水、林、城结合俱佳,将会有较高的审美和历史文化价值[7]

(3)meilishanshuichengshideshan、shui、chengguanxi。

现代山水城市建设,不仅要打造特有的空间形象,更要呈现综合体的风貌,将城市、自然、人有机结合。城市布局应追求山水保护与生态修复,景观打造应追求显山露水,节点设计应追求功能与文化完美结合[8]

yingzaoxianshanlushuidechengshiyixiang, keyifenbiecongshanheshuiliangfangmianlaizuowenzhang。

congshantilaishuo,yaoyanxuxianzhuangshanshimianyan、dishiqifudedixinggeju, yanxu“yuanshanweiping、jinshanweiyuan”deshantigeju,zongtiyingzao“qingshanrucheng” chengshiyixiang。jutideshantiguankongcelvewei: yishimingquechengshishandibaohubianjie, yanjinzaishandibaohufanweineijinxingchengshikaifajianshehuodong,baohuchengshishantishengtaibendibubeipohuai,jiaqiangshantishengtaixiufu,baozhangquyushengtaianquan。ershibaochichengshishandidedixingzoushiyuziranjingguan,chengshijianzhubuyingzhedangshandiziranjingguan,yingquebao2/3 shantikejian。

从水体来看,要尊重现状水生环境,构建水网体系,并依托水系组织城市空间和功能用地布局,延续整体山环水抱的生态格局,蜿蜒曲折的自然肌理。具体的水体管控策略为: 一是依据地形高差变化构建江、河(溪)、塘, 构建梯级水网格局。二是划定城市蓝线,保障水环境安全,以城市自然的江河、湿地、洼地保护为载体,实现城市水体自然循环, 保障城市雨洪安全。三是塑造滨水空间,确保城市河段和水域具有开阔的景观视野,建筑高度与建筑距河道中轴距离的比值不超过1.0,同时确保周围建筑不产生对河段和水域的视线遮挡,不形成连续封闭的界面[9]

 

四、美丽山水城市实践基础

1. 实践基础

gd视讯shijianjichuzhuyaotixianweichengshishanshuigujiadeyingyong。

gd视讯chengshishanshuigujiashijiyuchengshiziranziyuanhedixingdimaoerjianlidechengshisanweikongjianjiegou。chengshigujiazuoweizhichenghezhidaochengshiyouxufazhandefazhanmoshi,suizhechengshifazhanerbuduanshengzhangbianhua。

yishiduichengshideshanshuiyaosujinxingbutongkongjianchidudefenxi;ershiyibaohushanshuiziyuan、shunyingziranweiyuanze, quedingchengshidekaifaqiangdu、bujushiyixingjikaifarongliangdeng,yongyizhidaochengshiguihua;sanshibaozhengchengshigongnengjiegoudehelixingheziranshanshuiziyuandelianxuxing, tuchuchengshibentuhuadedutemianmao。

shanshuichengshijianshe,keyigenjuchengshizishenshanshuiziyuan,jiehexinjishushouduan,tichudutedebentuhuashanshuigujia, tuichudujugexingdechengshitezhi。jutitixianzaisanfangmian。

diyi,congchengshidiliheshanshuigejuxingtaichufa,tilianshanshuigujia。yanjiuchengshishanshuiziyuan,zaibaohuziranshanshuiziyuandejichushangyindizhiyi,xiediaochengshiwenhuayushanshuiwenhuadeguanxi,jiehexiangguanlilun,zongjiechengshishanshuigujiajiangoudelilunyufangfa。

dier,chongfenzunzhongziranshanshuidebendi,zaibaohushanshuidejichushang,yunyongchengshidilixueheshengtaixueyuanli,baohushengtailangdao、shengtaibankuai、shanshuiziranshengtaijiliheshanshuihuanjing,youhuashanshuigeju,zhangxianshanshuitese。

第三,确立山水城市整体框架,打造景观视线通廊,建设既有水系渗透形成的景观水带,也有山脉延伸形成的城市绿脉,实现山水资源的有序性、连续性及完整性,为城市建设新的景观特色提供物质载体[10]

2. 建设典型

shanshuichengshijianshe,yaozhuzhongtuchuchengshizaizhangqifazhanguochengzhongsuoxingchengdeduteziranfengguang、lishirenwenjidian、chanyedengyuqitadiyudechayihuatezheng, tishenggongzhongduichengshixiangguantezhengdegaodurentongganhexingxiangrenkedu,congerdadaozengqiangchengshixiangguanchanyeliandefushexiaoying。

shanshuichengshipinpaijianshexuyaozuohaosifangmiangongzuo: yishipinpaijianshejichutiaojianfenxi,ershipinpaijianshewenhuamailuofenxi,sanshipinpaijiansheziyuanjiexi, sishipinpaijianshedehuanjingzhichi。muqian, woguoshanshuichengshichenggongdechengshipinpaimoshiyousanzhong。

yishiqingdaomoshi。qingdaolizuyuchanpinpinpai,tongguochengshichanpinpinpaideshifanxiaoyingdaidongqitapinpaifazhan,zhubuxingchengchengshixiliechanyepinpai。

ershidalianmoshi。dalianshizhengfucongfuzhijichusheshi、ruanyingjianhuanjing、dazaochengshixingxiangdengfangmianrushou,fazhangezhongyiwuliu、renliu、xinxiliu、zijinliuweizhongxindediyuzhimingpinpai。zheishiyizhengfuweizhudao,tongguochengshixingxiangdazaochengshipinpai,yidaidongchanyepinpaihechanpinpinpaidefazhan。

三是温州模式。以温州为代表的东南沿海一带,在产业集群发展中形成了产业品牌,打造出了一些知名城市品牌和产业品牌。这些城市品牌的打造,都不能离开政府主导和扶持,以及通过市场机制创建过硬的产品品牌[11]

3. 创建价值

jieheshijiechengshifazhandechaoliuyuqushi、woguochengshisuoyifudeshanshuidimaotezhengyijiguojiaduichengshifazhandezhanlvejuece,tichu“meilishanshuichengshi” fazhanlinian,bingjiangqiguanchuandaoweilaishanshuichengshifazhandejutishijian,shishifenbiyaode,yeshixianshikexingde。

gd视讯meilishanshuichengshinengshiyizhanshichengshidutemeili。yu“hexie”“meili”“meili”“shengtai”“lvse”“jingcai”“lingxiu” dengciyuxiangbi,“shanshui”shiyigejijuchuantongwenhuatesedeciyu。zuoweiyizuochengshi,ruoguanyishanshui,zirannengjirenyishihuadelianxiang,erzengjiaqimeili。touguo“shanshuichengshi”,renmenkandaodebujinjinshichengshideshanshui,gengnengchanshengziranshengtaiyiren、rendiguanxihexie、wenhuadiyunshenhoudefengfulianxiang。

gd视讯meilishanshuichengshinengkexueyinlingchengshifazhan。dingweijuedingzheyizuochengshidefazhanfangxiang。yishanshuidingweichengshi, shanshuijiushiguanjianci,shanshuiyishiziranhuishenrurenxin,shanshuizaichengshidefazhanzhongcainengbeitishengdaotuchuweizhi,chengshideshanshuifengmaocainengdedaogenghaodefazhanyutisheng。shanshuichengshixuyaobaohuyuliyongdexiediao,baohushiqiantihetongling。yishanshuidingweichengshi,baohuyehuixiangyingdichengweichengshidangzhengyushimindezijuexingdong。

美丽山水城市最能体现人地和谐。并不是每一座城市都有山有水,并不是每一座有山有水的城市都能被称作山水城市。山水城市的典型特征是山、水、城相依相伴、相亲相近,又具有山水城市风貌的和谐。这就要求开展山水城市建设时,一要明确山水城市定位,将“山水城市”作为城市宣传语;二要将“山水城市” 建设与美丽城市、健康城市、幸福城市相结合;三要将“山水城市”理念融入城市建设与发展规划之中;四要坚持“山水城市” 建设与文化、旅游和康养融合发展[12]

美丽山水城市是国民对现代城市建设的新呼唤。城市是人类藉以生存和发展的栖居环境,遵循山水城市的理想目标,不是将山水复合于城市,而是将城市复合于山水,在“国必依山水”历史的基础上传承,并创新地将山水文化融入城市建设[13]

gd视讯shengtaifazhanwei“shanshuichengshi”jianshezhiminglexinfangxiang。shengtaishichengshijianshehefazhandejishizhiyi。chengshibenshenjiushidiyushengtaixitongdeyibufen,ziranshengtaixitongweichengshitigonglezuijibendegouchengyaosu(tudiyijigezhongwuzhilaiyuandeng)。chengshilibukaiziran,chengshifazhanyoutongshiyingxiangyugaibianzheziran, yinci,“shanshuichengshi”keyizuoweixindechengshishengtaifazhanmoshi。

4. 目标指向

meilishanshuichengshijianshe,yinggaijiangziranshengtaideyouxiaobaohu、chengshitesedejingxinsuzao、shanshuiwenhuadejichengfayang、rendiguanxihexiezuoweijianshemubiao, shixianshan、shui、cheng、rendehexiegongying。jutilaishuo,yinggaiyiquyushengtaianquanweijichu、yichengshihuanjingbaohuweijidian、yichengshiwenhuafuxingweineihan、yiyingzaoshanshuichengweizhuashou。

gd视讯youxiaobaohuquyuziranshengtai。chengshijiansheyuziranshanshuigongcun,zheijiyuwoguoshanshuizonghengdeziranhuanjingxiangguan, yeyugudairenleishengcunfazhandexuqiuxiangguan。jinnianlaiyixiedifangchuxiandepishantianhe、weihuzaotiandengjianshexingpohuai, daozhichengshihuanjingehua,kongqiwuran, pohuailezhengtishanshuigeju,jichengshifazhandailaiweiji。weilegaibianzheiyixianzhuang, shanshuichengshijianshebixuhuadingshengtaihongxianyuchengshizengzhangbianjie,jinxingdashan、dashuideshengtaibendibaohuhexiaoshan、xiaoshuideshengtaiwangluogoujian,helihuafengongnengfenqu,qianghua“duozhongxin、zutuanshi” dechengshigeju,yanshoushengtaibendi,congergouzhushan、shui、chenggongrongdekongjiantixi。

gd视讯jingxinsuzaochengshitese。yizuochengshidegexingzuinengfanyingrenleiyuzirandexianghuzuoyong。chengshideziranshanshuihuanjinghebutongdelishirenwenneihan,juedinglechengshibutongkongjianjiegoutesexiadewenhuagexing。shanshuichengshijianshejiushibazuijuchengshigexingdeshanshuigejuyuchuantongdeshanshuiwenhuaxiangjiehe,peiyuchengshitesekongjianjiegou,suzaochengshidutedewenhuajingguanfengmao。

gd视讯jichengfayangshanshuiwenhua。shanshuichengshishijichenghefayangshanshuiwenhuadeyouxiaotujing,jingweishanshui、linmoshanshui、jiqingshanshuishizuihaodejiedu。suizherenleiraodonghexiepoxingdejiada,henduochengshidouzaizhubukuoda,eryouxiedifangdeshanshuiquezaizhubuehua,shenzhichuxianleshanshuiwenhuadexiaoshi。shanshuichengshizhenxing, shijicheng“tianrenheyi”dezhexuesixiang、shiqinghuayidemeixuesixiangdezuihaoshuoming。

5. 建设思路

jiansheyuanze。shan、shui、cheng、renhexiegongsheng,shishanshuichengshijianshebixuzunxundezhunze,shishanshuichengshijianshoudedixian。meilishanshuichengshijiansheyaozunxunsixiangyuanze: yishijianchiquyushengtaianquanhechengshihuanjingyouhaoxiangjieheyuanze, ershijianchishan、shui、cheng、renhexiegongshengdeshengminggongtongtiyuanze,sanshijianchichengshiziranjingguande“hushanzhishui”、luwangjianshede“huanshanraoshui”、chengshikongjianbujude“xianshanlushui”、chengshijingguande“jieshanyongshui”xiangjieheyuanze。sishijianchichengshishengtaixitongyuchengshiwenhuaronghedeyuanze。

fazhandingwei。meilishanshuichengshidehexinlinianshi,chengshishengtaixitonghechengshilishiwenhuachuantongwanmeijiehe,renyuziran、chengshiyuziran、chengshilishiyuxiandaijishuxiediaofazhan。bachengshishiweishengtaijiazhixitongdeyibufen,fuyuziranyurenleipingdengdediweihejihui,qiangdiaochengshijiansheyuziranxitongyaojianligongshengguanxi。goujiankaifang、duoyang、hexiedehekechixufazhandeshengtaichengshifazhanxingtai,youxiaoxiediaoshengtaizhuti、shengtaixinxi、heshengtaihuanjingzhijiandexianghushentouyingxiangdedongtaipinghengguanxi,fahuishengtaiyinzizaichengshifazhanzhongdehuoli。

xiangguanguihua。guihuaxianxingshibixuzunxundeqianti。yinggaiyiduoguiheyidefangshi,tuichushanshuichengshijianshezongtiguihua。ciguihuayaobaokuochengshizongtiguihuadejibenneirong,gengzhongyaodeshiqiangdiaoquyuguotukongjiangejuyouhua、“sansheng” kongjianyouhua、chengshilvsejingjitixi、chengshirenjutixi、chengshiwenhuatixihechengshizhidutixi。tongshi,jianyigedizaijianshemeilishanshuichengshitongshiqidong“meilishanshuichengshifazhanzhanlve”guihua,ciguihuayaokaolvchengshidimaiyurenmaidewanzheng,shengtaiyuhuanjingzhengtixietong、chengshiguotukongjianzuzhi、chengshishengtai、shengchan、shenghuodeyouhua、chengshijingjiyuwenhuaronghe、jiankangyangshengyuchengshilvyouxiediao, zuodaochengshiyuziranshuiruxiangrong、hexiegongsheng。

建设要点。第一,美丽山水城市建设以我为主,传承个性、培育特色。山水城市是一个具有开放性,整体性、多样性和可持续发展的生态系统,其城市定位和发展目标是构建一种山、水、林、城、人共融的生命共同体,是一个典型的生态城市发展形态,是一种立地条件下的城市建设模式。不同的城市要找准自己与其他城市不同的特点和自身优势。第二, 美丽山水城市建设着力做好城市历史建筑与文化遗迹保护,把根留住。历史建筑与文化遗迹是城市特色化的重要体现,是城市发展的历史痕迹,是城市内涵的个性体现。要因势利导,发扬优势, 强化特色,一切人工建设必须和自然环境协调融合。在继承传统的基础上运用现代新技术发展, 把城市发展同园林艺术结合起来, 使传统文化与现代科技得以完美结合[14]

6. 困境与难点

shijianzhong,meilishanshuichengshijianshemianlindekunjingyunandianzhuyaoyousangefangmian:

gd视讯diyi,chengshijianshequeshaoduichengshidimaihewenmaizhengtikongjiandehongguanbakong。chengshiguihuaqueshaozhangyuanyanguang,daozhichengshiyuanshideziranyuwenhuamailuozaodaopohuai,ziranhuanjingyurengonghuanjingshidiao, huanjingyuwenhuazhimeishiquleyuanyouyunwei, chengshidequyubujuyugongnengbuqingxi, peizhilvheliyonglvjiaodi。

gd视讯dier,chengshitesehefengmaoqutongxianxiangyanzhong。chengshijianshequtongxianxiangtuchu,yiweizhuiqiugaodashang,zhuiqiuchaoliu, erhulvelechengshizishendediyuanyulishiwenhuatedian,mangmuqiutong,quefafenggehetese,changchangjirenyanjuan、dandiaozhigan。chengshijianshebuzhongshigexingchuancheng,jiyuxingchengxintese,bunengzhengquejiehedangdideshanshuihuanjinghechengshiwenhuabianjinxingxinchengzhizao。kanjianqitachengshitesetuchu, jiuquanpanzhaochao,mofangzhizao,wangwangdiudiaolezijidedegexingchuancheng。

disan,chengshiziranyurenwenhuanjingshihengchengweifazhanderuohuan。chengshijiansheguochengduiziranyurenwenhuanjingbaohurenshibuzu,wangwangshichuxianlewentizhihoucaikaishikaolvbujiucuoshi,tebieshihulvechengshizishenteyoudeguwenwu、gujianzhu、guwenhuadengdezhenguijiazhi,yixierenweipohuailingrenwubitongxin。

 

五、美丽山水城市研究与实践展望

1. 美丽城市研究

目前有关美丽中国的研究仍处于探索性阶段,尚未形成系统化的理论体系、评价体系、研究方法和实践经验[15]。具体表现在三个方面:

diyi,meilizhongguoneihanjililunjichushimuqianyanjiudezhutiyuzhongdian, danhaiweixingchengtixi。

dier,meilizhongguopingjiazhibiaotixidexiangguanwenxianjiaoshao,rengchuyutansuojieduan,weixingchengtongyiderenshihebiaozhun。meilizhongguopingjiazhibiaotixiyushengtaiwenmingjianshekaohemubiaotixi、lvsefazhanzhibiaotixi、gaozhiliangfazhanzhibiaotixi、xunhuanjingjifazhanpingjiazhibiaotixi、lianheguo2030 kechixufazhanmubiaodengdeguanxiyanjiuhaiyoudaijinyibushenru。

disan,meilizhongguojianshelujingdeyanjiuneirongbijiaokongfan,shicaoxingbuqiang。

2. 山水城市研究

gd视讯muqianshanshuichengshiliniancengmiandeyanjiujiaoduo,danrengweixingchengwanzhengdeshanshuichengshijianshelilun,qizhonggdshixunshanshuichengshijianshebiaozhunhepingjiatixifangmiandeyanjiujiaoshao,jidaitisheng。

gd视讯youguanshanshuichengshijianshedeliluntixiyanjiujiaoduo,danjiansheyuanzehaimeiyouxingchengtongyidegongshi,youqishishanshuichengshijianshedejishujichengfangmianyanjiumingxianbuzu。

gd视讯shanshuichengshizuoweiyizhongchengshilixiangmoxing,qililunyushijianjiehededianxinggeanhaibuqingxi,daduoqiangdiaozhongguochengshishanshuiwenhuachuancheng,juyoujiaohaodejichu,danquefaxingchengwanzhengdechengshijiansheluodifangan。

gd视讯shanshuichengshijiansheshiyizhongyoutiaojiandechengshijianshe,zheishiwoguojibenguoqingsuojuedingde,jiyaoxuexiguojishanshuichengshijianshedexianjinlinian,youyaotuxianyiwoweizhudefazhanyuanze。

3. 美丽山水城市实践发展

加强对美丽山水城市建设路径的探索与总结研究,将是推动美丽山水城市建设的基础工作[16]。具体包括以下五个方面:

gd视讯yiyaomingquechengshijianshelujingdeyanjiuduixiang。xuyaojiaqiangcongguojiazhidifangbutongchidudeyanjiu,xingchengguojia—fazhanzhou—quyu—chengshiqun—chengshi—xiangcundengduocengji、duoweidudejianshezhidao。

eryaojingzhundingweibutongchengshibutongfazhanjieduanjianshelujingdejutineirong。jianyitichuzishangerxiahezixiaershangxiangjiehedejianshemoshi,mingquejiansheguochengzhongbutongzhutidezhize,tishengbutongzhuticanyujianshedejijixing。

gd视讯sanyaokaizhanjianshelujingdeshijianxingjianyan。zaishijianzhongzongjietansuokefuzhi、ketuiguangdediquxingjianshemoshi, tongshijiqumeilizhongguohuajianshexianxingqudefazhanjingyan,tongguolilunyushijianbuduanwanshanmeilishanshuichengshijianshelujingtixi。

siyaomingquemeilishanshuichengshililunneihan,goujianmeilishanshuichengshililuntixi。yifangmianyaomingqueyi“wuweiyiti” zuoweimeilizhongguodejibenlilunkuangjia, jiyuquyutezhengheguotukongjianfazhanzhongdian,bawomeilizhongguodeduozhongneihan; lingyifangmianyaojiangjiyushengtaiwenmingmubiaoxiaderendihexiezuoweimeilishanshuichengshidehexinlilun。

wuyaogoujiankehuode、kekaohe、keluodidechayixing、fazhanxingzhibiaotixi。mingquepingjiazhibiaoshezhiyuanze,rupingjiazhibiaodetongyongxing、kehuodexinghekekaohexingdeng;zhibiaotixidegoujianbixukaolvquyuxinghejieduanxingtezheng,zhongdianshijiejuebutongchengshibutongfazhanjieduandezhibiaogoucheng、quanzhongshezhiheyuzhishezhidechayixingwenti;yaotongguoshijianyanzhengbuduanwanshanheyouhuazhibiaotixidepingjianengli,ruxuanzeyangbanchengshi、diqujinxingshidian,zhubuwanshanmeilishanshuichengshipingjiazhibiaotixi;zaijiansheshuipingdekaohefangmian,xuyaomingquekaohezhuti, quedingbutongjibiedekaohegongzuozhongzhongyanghedifangdezhize。

 

六、美丽山水城市建设的创新思考

美丽山水城市是一个典型的自然—人文—社会—经济相互耦合的地域综合体,各自然地理要素具有变异性、界面多样性、过程复杂性等特征。由于人口、资源、环境、能源等问题都集中反映在城市,使得城市对区域环境变化的响应极为敏感,对地理环境演变所构成的压力、效应也更为突出,成为人地关系表现最为集中的区域。今后城市自然地理学应着眼于城市复杂系统对自然变异和人类活动的响应过程和反馈机理,以及全球变化对城市可持续发展的影响和对策[17]

1. 强化美丽山水城市的地域识别功能

地域识别代表着一个城市的个性风格与独特内容,也即城市的区域特色,对山水城市发展有着重要意义。每个城市的自然与人文环境都不同,人的性格、生活方式、思想观念、人文历史也不尽相同[18]

gd视讯ziranhuanjingdediyushibie。diyuziranhuanjingzhongzhuyaobaokuodizhigouzao、shanchuanheliu、dixingdimao、ziranziyuandeng。butongchengshidedixingdimaodoucunzaiyidingdechayixing,zheizhongchayixingshidediyuziranjingguanchengxianduoyuanhuadetezheng,bingxingchengshuyugejutesedeziranfengmao。

renwenlishidediyushibie。renwenlishishiyigechengshidelinghun,jianzhenglelichaolidaidexingshuaichengbai,chengzaizhelishidejiyi,zhangxianzhebutongshidaidemailuo,shichengshiyishuyujishudeyoujijiehe,daibiaozheyigechengshideneizaiwenhuajiazhiyujingjijiazhi。

gd视讯minfengminsudediyushibie。minfengminsushiyigechengshizaiyule、jiaotong、shengchan、yinshi、hunsangyijixinyangfangmiansuobiaoxianchulaidebutongxihao、jinji、fengshangyijichuantongxiguandeng,baokuochengshiteyoudejierihuoqingdian,shifanyingchengshiminfengminsuzuihaodejianzheng。

2. 注重美丽山水城市基础理论体系的发展与突破

gd视讯yichengshihuajinchengzhongdezirandiliwentiweiyanjiuzhongdian,buduanwanshanheshenhuachengshizirandilixuedeyanjiuneirong、fangfahetixi,yishiyingbingcujinweilaichengshizirandilixuedefazhan。

3. 强化美丽山水城市多学科交叉视角的多要素界面过程研究

gd视讯shenrutantaodongtaikaifangdechengshifuzajuxitongzhongduoyaosu、duojiezhi、duojiemianhuanjingwuzhizaichengshijuliebianhuabeijingxiadeguanjianguochengjiqixiangyingjizhi, weishanshuichengshijianshetigongshizhengshujuhelilunyiju。

4. 聚焦美丽山水城市自然— 人文系统的耦合机理研究

genjudangjinchengshimianlindezhongdawenti,zhongdianyanjiugeyaosudexianghuzuoyongjiqiouheyuliandong,fazhanmianxiangyucededuoyaosuouhedechengshixitongmoshi, shixianxitongzongheyuouhe,fuwushanshuichengshifazhan。

5. 聚焦美丽山水城市服务应用领域的研究

gd视讯kaizhanyichengshikechixufazhanweimubiaodeduofengxianyujingheduomubiaojuece, yidiaokonghetishengbingbuduantuokuanxuekeyingyongzaichengshikechixufazhanzhongdegongneng。

yiyaowanshanbutongshiqichengshifuzaxitongzhongduowuzhiguiquxingweidedongtaimoniyuce,tuiyanduowuzhishikongbianhuaduichengshitudiliyong/ fubeibianhuadexiangyingjizhi,kongjianbiaodachengshiwuranwuwuranfengxianyurenqunbaolugeju,cujinchengshishengtaixitongdeliangxingxunhuan。

eryaozonghechengshihuanjinghezaihaiwentiyanjiu,goujianquanfangweidechengshizaihaijiankonghemoni、zaihaifengxianpinggu、zaihaiyingjiguanliyuzaihaifangyutixi,tichuchengshiyingduitufagonggongshijiandekongjianduice、shishilujing、zongheyingjixiangyingjizhijianyi,tanxunchengshikechixufazhanhegonggonganquandebaozhangtujing。

sanyaoyanjiuchengshidibiaoxinxidefasheng、chuanbo、biaodajili,fanyangezhongdibiaoshikongguochengdecanshuhejizhi,jianlimiaoshuhejieshidibiaoshikongguochengdekongjianxinxifenxililun,xitongmoxingyuxunixianshijishudejieheshixianxunihecaozuo,cujin“shuzichengshi”he“zhihuichengshi”jianshe。

6. 启动美丽山水城市发展战略规划

meilishanshuichengshichuangjianbushichengshifazhandezuizhongmubiao,bunengjiuchuangjiantanchuangjian,yinggaibameilishanshuichengshifazhanlinianluodishenggen,qidongmeilishanshuichengshifazhanzhanlveguihua,bingjiangqishangshengweichengshikongjianguihuadezhidaoxingwenjian。


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