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生物安全法的基本原则

作者: 于文轩 日期: 2019-04-10 文章来源:gd视讯_gd视讯平台-「开户首充送大礼」 浏览次数: 字号: [ ]

gd视讯2yue14ri,zhonggongzhongyangzongshuji、guojiazhuxi、zhongyangjunweizhuxi、zhongyangquanmianshenhuagaigeweiyuanhuizhurenxijinpingzaizhongyangquanmianshenhuagaigeweiyuanhuidishiercihuiyishangzhichu,yaobashengwuanquannaruguojiaanquantixi,xitongguihuaguojiashengwuanquanfengxianfangkonghezhilitixijianshe,quanmiantigaoguojiashengwuanquanzhilinengli。xijinpingzongshujiqiangdiao,yaojinkuaituidongchutaishengwuanquanfa,jiakuaigoujianguojiashengwuanquanfalvfaguitixi、zhidubaozhangtixi。xijinpingzongshujideshenkelunshu,weituidongshengwuanquanlifa、goujianguojiashengwuanquanfalvfaguitixihezhidubaozhangtixizhiminglefangxiang,tichulegenbenyaoqiu,zuochuledingcengsheji。bizhejiehekangjixinguanfeiyanyiqingzhanyidefansi,jiushengwuanquanfadejibenyuanzedequeding,tichuyixiasikaohejianyi。

一、综合性生物安全立法的必要性

“shengwuanquan”youguangyihexiayizhifen。xiayide“shengwuanquan”(biosafety),shizhirendeshengminghejiankang、shengwudezhengchangshengcunyijishengtaixitongdezhengchangjiegouhegongnengbushouxiandaishengwujishuyanfayingyonghuodongqinhaidezhuangtai。guangyide“shengwuanquan”(biosecurity),shizhirendeshengminghejiankang、shengwudezhengchangshengcunyijishengtaixitongdezhengchangzhuangtaibushouzhibingyouhaishengwu、wailairuqinshengwuyijixiandaishengwujishuyanfayingyonghuodongqinhaidezhuangtai。

gd视讯woguofeichangzhongshixiandaishengwujishudefazhan。guojiakejigongguanjihua、“863”jihua、zirankexuejijin、huojujihuadengkejihechanyefazhanjihua,junjiangshengwujishulieweiyouxianfazhanlingyu。zaizheixiejihuadetuidongxia,woguoxiandaishengwujishufazhanxunsu,zaiyixielingyuzhubuxingchengleshengwujishukaifatixi。yucitongshi,xiandaishengwujishufazhanheyingyongdailaidefengxianhesunhai,tebieshiduirentijiankanganquan、shengtaihuanjinganquan、shehuijingjianquandexiaojiyingxiang,yeyuelaiyuechengweibaokuowoguozaineideshijiegeguobudeburenzhenmianduidetiaozhan。xiandaishengwujishujuyouxianzhude“shuangrenjian”tezheng,jiyifangmianweirenleidailailejudadehuiyi,lingyifangmianyeyinfaleriyiyanjundeshengwuanquanwenti。shengwuanquanwentizhuyaobiaoxianweixiandaishengwujishudefazhanduinongyeanquan、shipinanquan、rentijiankang、shengtaianquandengfangmianchanshengdefengxianhesunhai。

guojishehuiduiyushengwuanquanwentideguanzhushiyushangshiji80niandai。muqian,guojifashangyijingxingchengleyi1992nian《shengwuduoyangxinggongyue》weijichu,yi2000nian《katahenashengwuanquanyidingshu》weizhongxin,yi2010nian《shengwuanquanyidingshugdshixunpeichangzerenhebujiudemingguwu-jilongpobuchongyidingshu》heqitaguojifawenjianweibuchongdeshengwuanquanguojifatixi。baokuowoguozaineidexuduoguojiahediqudouzhidingleyushengwuanquanxiangguandezhengce、lifahejishuzhinan,weishengwuanquanguanlitigongyiju。

woguomuqianyijingzhidingheshishileyixieyushengwuanquanxiangguandelifa,zhuyaobaokuo《huanjingbaohufa》dexiangguanguiding、shengwuanquanguanlizhuanxianglifaheshengwuanquanguanlixiangguanlifa。《huanjingbaohufa》di30tiaoguiding,kaifaliyongziranziyuan,yingdanghelikaifa,baohushengwuduoyangxing,baozhangshengtaianquan;yinjinwailaiwuzhongyijiyanjiu、kaifaheliyongshengwujishu,yingdangcaiqucuoshi,fangzhiduishengwuduoyangxingdepohuai。zhuanmenlifashejijiyingongchenganquanguanli、nongyeshengwuanquanguanli、linyeshengwuanquanguanli、zhuanjiyinshipinanquanguanli、zhuanjiyinyaopinanquanguanli、shengwujishuchanpinyuejingzhuanyiguanli、renleiyichuanziyuanguanlidenglingyu,yushengwuanquanguanlixiangguandelifazhuyaoshejishengjingbaohu、nonglinchuchanpinguanli、shipinyaopinweishengguanli、jinchukoujianyanjianyi、shiyanhuodongguanlidenglingyu。

zheixielifaweiwoguoshengwuanquanguanlitigonglezhongyaodefalvyiju,danzailifalinian、faguitixi、guanlitizhi、guanlizhiduhelifajishudengfangmiancunzaiyixiewenti,wufahenhaodimanzushengwuanquanguanlidexianshixuyao。zaicibeijingxia,woguozhidingzonghexingshengwuanquanfa,jiakuaigoujianguojiashengwuanquanfalvfaguitixihezhidubaozhangtixi,bujinyouliyushengwujishujiqichanyedejiankangfazhan、baozhangshehuijingjianquan,erqieduiyubaohurentijiankangheshengtaihuanjing、tuijinshengtaiwenmingjianshejuyouzhongyaoyiyi。zaizhidingzonghexingshengwuanquanfadeguochengzhong,quelikexuehelidejibenyuanzetixishiyigejiqizhongyaodefangmian。

二、生物安全法基本原则的构成

genjuwoguoshengwuanquanguanlidexuqiu,jiyuwoguolvxingshengwuanquanguojifayiwuyaoqiu,tongshijiejianguowaichengshujingyan,woguozonghexingshengwuanquanfayingquelisandajibenyuanze,ji: fengxianyufangyuanze、jinshenfazhanyuanzehequanchengguanliyuanze。

(一)风险预防原则

shengwuanquanfadefengxianyufangyuanze,shizhidangxiandaishengwujishuyanfayingyongheshengtaihuanjingkaifaliyonghuodongyoukenengduirentijiankanggouchengweihaihuozheyoukenengduishengtaihuanjingzaochengyanzhongde、bukenizhuandeweihai,shenzhiyoukenengweixieguojiaanquanshi,jishimeiyoukexueshangqueshidezhengjuzhengminggaiweihaibiranfasheng,yeyingcaiqubiyaodeyufangcuoshidegenbenzhunze。

gd视讯fengxianyufangyuanzezhishaobaokuosifangmianneihan。qiyi,yufangdeduixiangjibaokuoqianzaide“fengxian”,yebaokuoxianshide“sunhai”。youyufengxianzhuanhuaweixianshijiushisunhai,duifengxiandeyufangyejiushiduikenengfashengdesunhaideyufang,guerciyuanzeneizaidibaohanle“sunhaiyufang”deneirong。qier,qianzaiweihaidadaoleyidingdeyanzhongchengdu。duiyurentijiankangeryan,genjuxianxingdefadingyuzhibiaozhun,yidanquerenyoukenengzaochengsunhai,jiuyingdangcaiquyufangcuoshi;duiyushengtaihuanjingeryan,qiweihaichengduxudadao“yanzhong”huo“bukenizhuan”dechengdu。qisan,cunzaikexueshangdebuquedingxing,jizaikexueshangyoukenengwufapanduanxiangyingdexiandaishengwujishuxiangguanhuodongshifoubirandaozhiweihaidefasheng。zheiyuhuanjingfade“kexuebuquedingxing”tedianxianghuying。qisi,cizhongkexueshangdebuquedingxingbugouchengfanduihuozheyanchicaiqusunhaiyufangcuoshideliyou。

shengwuanquanfajiangfengxianyufangyuanzezuoweijibenyuanzedezuizhuyaoyuanyin,shishengwuanquanwentijudadefengxianxingjiqihouguodeyanzhongxing。youyushengwuanquanyushengwuzuibenzhidexingzhi、wuzhongdeshengcunhefanyanshenzhiyurenleideshengcunfazhanmiqiexiangguan,yidanshengwuanquanfengxianzhuanhuaweixianshidesunhai,qihouguowangwangyoushifeichangyanzhong、shenzhishibukenizhuande,yinci,shengwuanquanwentiweiguojishehuiguangfanguanzhu。

guojifaheguoneifaduifengxianyufangyuanzedeshiyongjunyoujijihuiying。《shengwuduoyangxinggongyue》guiding,shengwuduoyangxingzaoshouyanzhongjianshaohuosunshideweixieshi,buyingyiquefachongfendekexuedinglunweiliyou,ertuichicaiquzhizaibimianhuojinliangjianqingcizhongweixiedecuoshi;gediyuefangyingzhidinghuocaiqubanfa,yiguanzhi、guanlihuokongzhiyoushengwujishugaibiande、kenengduishengwuduoyangxingbaohuhechixuliyongjirenleijiankangchanshengbuliyingxiangdehuoshengwutizaishiyongheshifangshikenengchanshengdefengxian。《katahenashengwuanquanyidingshu》jiangfengxianyufangyuanzeguanchuanshizhong。zaiqitashengwuanquanguojifawenjianzhong,ru《shishiweishengyuzhiwuweishengxieyi》《guojizhiwubaohugongyue》yiji《gdshixunhuanjingbaohudenanjitiaoyueyidingshu》dengzhuduoshejishengwuanquandeguojifalvwenjian,douchongfentixianlefengxianyufangyuanze。zaiwoguoxianyoudeyixieyushengwuanquanguanlixiangguandelifazhong,yetixianlefengxianyufangyuanze。piru,《nongyezhuanjiyinshengwuanquanguanlitiaoli》guiding,guojiaduinongyezhuanjiyinshengwuanquanshixingfenjiguanlipingjiazhidu,bingjianlinongyezhuanjiyinshengwuanquanpingjiazhidu。oumengguojiazaishengwuanquanguanlilingyuguanchefengxianyufangyuanzejiaoweichedi,qichengshujingyankezicankao。

(二)谨慎发展原则

shengwuanquanfadejinshenfazhanyuanze,shizhizaicongshixiandaishengwujishuyanfayingyongheshengtaihuanjingkaifaliyonghuodongshi,chongfenkaolvqikenengdailaidefumianyingxiang,bingjiangzheixiefumiandeyingxiangheyinsuyuxiandaishengwujishufazhanheshengtaihuanjingkaifaliyonghuiyijinxingzonghepingheng,yishixiankechixufazhandegenbenzhunze。

shengwuanquanfajinshenfazhanyuanzedelilungenyuanzaiyukechixufazhanyuanze,guanchelekechixufazhanyuanze“xuyao”he“xianzhi”lianggefangmiandeyaoqiu: gaiyuanzejiangxiandaishengwujishuyanfayingyongheshengtaihuanjingkaifaliyonghuodong(jimanzurenleidexuyao)zhiyuhexindiwei;tongshiyijinshendetaiduduiqijinxingguizhi,yiquebaoxiangguanhuodongxiangkechixufangxiangfazhan。yinci,jinshenfazhanyuanzeshikechixufazhanyuanzezaishengwuanquanlingyudejutitixian。zheiyiyuanzedezuoyongleisiyu“guolvqi”,qizuizhuyaodegongnengshi“lvdiao”xiandaishengwujishuyanfayingyongheshengtaihuanjingkaifaliyonghuodongzhongbuliyushengwuanquanbaohudeyinsu,shixiandaishengwujishudeyijiankangfazhan,baozhangguojiaanquan。

zaiguojifazhong,jinshenfazhanyuanzezaishengwuduoyangxingbaohuheliyong、zhiwuweishengbaohu、shengwujishuchanpinyijitedingshengwudechuli、yunshuhebiaozhi、jidishengtaihuanjingdebaohudengfangmianjunyoutixian。qizhong,《shengwuduoyangxinggongyue》he《katahenashengwuanquanyidingshu》zhongdexiangguanguidingtixiandezuiweimingxian。piru,《shengwuduoyangxinggongyue》yifangmianguidingyaoduishengwuduoyangxingzuchengbufen“chijiushiyong”,lingyifangmianyouguidingyao“jinliangjianshaobuliyingxiang”。《katahenashengwuanquanyidingshu》duishengwujishudeguizhiyibingfeizhizaiyizhishengwujishudefazhan,ershiyao“quebaozaianquanzhuanyi、chuliheshiyongpingjiexiandaishengwujishuhuodede、kenengduishengwuduoyangxingdebaohuhekechixushiyongchanshengbuliyingxiangdegaixinghuoshengwutilingyuneicaiquchongfendebaohucuoshi,tongshigujiduirenleijiankangsuogouchengdefengxianbingtebiecezhongyuejingzhuanyiwenti”。 

gd视讯woguoxianyoudeshengwuanquanlifayeguanchelejinshenfazhanyuanze,zheizaiyouguanzhuanjiyinshipinanquanxiangguanlifazhongtixiandejiaoweimingxian。genjuxiangguanguiding,zhuanjiyinshipinshengchanqiyexudadaoguojiayouguanshipinshengchanqiyeweishengguifandeyaoqiu,baozhengsuoshengchanjingyingdezhuanjiyinshipindeshiyonganquanxingheyingyangzhiliang;zhuanjiyinshipinxujingweishengbushenchapizhun,fouzebudeshengchanhuozhejinkou,yebudeyongzuoshipinhuoshipinyuanliao;duizhuanjiyinshipinshixingbiaoshizhidu,biaoqianyingdangzhenshi、keguan;dengdeng。

(三)全程管理原则

shengwuanquanfadequanchengguanliyuanze,shizhiduixiandaishengwujishujiqichanpindeyanjiu、kaifa、shangpinhua、xiaofei、yuejingzhuanyi、feiqiwuchulidenggegehuanjieyijishengtaihuanjingkaifaliyongdequanguochengjinxingjianduheguanlidejibenzhunze。

shixingquanchengguanliyuanze,yuzheixiehuodongzaishikongweiduheyinguoguanxiweidudemiqieguanlianxingxixixiangguande。yixiandaishengwujishuyanfayingyongweili。yifangmian,xiandaishengwujishudeyanjiuyukaifahuanjiezaishijianhekongjianshangcunzaimiqiedelianxi。duiyudaduoshudeshengwujishuyanfazheeryan,jishuyanjiuyuchanpinkaifadejiexianhequfenbingbushifeichangmingxi: jishuyanjiuguochengbenshenwangwangshixinchanpindekaifaguocheng,erjishuyanjiudemudewangwangyeshiweilekaifamouzhongxinchanpin。xiangyingdi,duiyanjiujieduanyukaifajieduandeguanliyebuyingfengeduli,fouzejiuhuizaiguanlidechengxuheneirongshangchanshengyilouhuozhezhongdie。lingyifangmian,xiandaishengwujishuxiangguanhuodongdegegehuanjieduirentijiankangheshengtaihuanjingdegefangmianyingxiangzhijianyecunzaimiqiedelianxi。ruguozaiyanjiuhekaifajieduanweicaiquchongfenjinshendiyufangcuoshi,shidetourushichangdeshangpinduirentijiankanghehuanjingdefengxianxingyirancunzai,neimezaihouxudexiaofeiguochengzhong,cizhongfengxianxingyiranhuibansuiqizhong,bingshiqiyoukenengzaiqitayinsudegongtongzuoyongxiazhuanbianweixianshidesunhai。

gd视讯quanchengguanliyuanzezaishengwuanquanguojifashangdeyiju,zhuyaotixianzai《katahenashengwuanquanyidingshu》zhong。congzhuanjiyinshengwutidechuli、yunshu、baozhuang,daoguojing、yuejingzhuanyiheyingjicuoshi,zaidaoshiyong,gaiyidingshucongbutonghuanjiehefangmianjiuruheshixianqimubiaozuochulejiaoweiquanmiandeguiding,yishishengwuanquanguojifadeyuanze、zhiduhecuoshiguancheqizhong。zaifengxianguanlifangmian,yidingshuguiding,diyuefangying“zhidingbingbaochishiyidejizhi、cuoshihezhanlve,yongyizhiyue、guanlihekongzhizaibenyidingshufengxianpinggutiaokuanzhongzhimingde、yingaixinghuoshengwutideshiyong、chuliheyuejingzhuanyiergouchengdegezhongfengxian”,youcishifengxianguanliguanchuanyugegejieduan。

gd视讯zaixianyoudeshengwuanquanlifazhong,tixianquanchengguanlizhiduzuixianzhudeshiyouguannongyezhuanjiyinanquandelifa。zaiyanjiuyushiyanjieduan,congshangyigeshiyanjieduanzhuanruxiayigeshiyanjieduan,yingdangjingguozhuguanbumenpizhun;shengchanxingshiyanjieshuhou,keyixiangzhuguanbumenshenqinglingqunongyezhuanjiyinshengwuanquanzhengshu;zaishengchanyujiagongjieduan,shengchanzhuanjiyinzhiwuzhongzi、zhongchuqin、shuichanmiaozhong,yingqudezhuguanbumenbanfadeshengchanxukezhenghejiagongxukezheng;zaijingyingjieduan,yingdangqudezhuguanbumenbanfadezhongzi、zhongchuqin、shuichanmiaozhongjingyingxukezheng;zaijinkoujieduan,zaijinchukou、yuejingzhuanyidenghuanjie,zhuguanbumendeguanlicuoshiyiguanchuanshizhong。

三、生物安全法的原则体系

gd视讯fengxianyufangyuanze、jinshenfazhanyuanzehequanchengguanliyuanzezaishengwuanquanfazhongsuoqidezuoyonggebuxiangtong。anzhaogejibenyuanzejiandeneizailuojiguanxijiqizaishengwuanquanjibenyuanzetixizhongdediweihezuoyong,shengwuanquanfadejibenyuanzekeyihuafenweimubiaoxingyuanze、shouduanxingyuanzehechengxuxingyuanzesangecengci: mubiaoxingyuanze,shizhizhizaiquelishengwuanquanfademubiaohezongzhideyuanze,shishengwuanquanlifazhiduanpaidedaoxiang;shouduanxingyuanze,shizhizhizaishixianshengwuanquanfademubiaoxingyuanzedeyaoqiu,bingweishengwuanquanlifamudedequanmianguanchetigongshitixingyijudeyuanze;chengxuxingyuanze,shizhiweishixianshengwuanquanfademubiaoxingyuanzeheshouduanxingyuanzedeshitixingyaoqiutigongchengxuxingzhichideyuanze。

juci,shengwuanquanfasanxiangjibenyuanzezhijiandeguanxishi: fengxianyufangyuanzeshizaikechixufazhantiaojianxia,shengwuanquanfadezhiduanpaidechufadianheguisu,shishengwuanquanfademubiaoxingyuanze;jinshenfazhanyuanzetuidongshengwuanquanfachaoxiangkechixudefangxiangfazhan,shishengwuanquanfadeshouduanxingyuanze;quanchengguanliyuanzeshishixianfengxianyufangyuanzehejinshenfazhanyuanzedeshitiyaoqiudezhongyaotujingheyouxiaobaozhang,shishengwuanquanfadechengxuxingyuanze。sanxiangyuanzezhijianbingfeixianghugelie、xianghuduli,ershixianghujiaocha、xianghushentou、xianghubuchong、xianghuzhicheng,gongtonggouchengshengwuanquanfajibenyuanzetixi,tixianyigegongtongdezongzhi,jishengwuanquanfademubiao: weihushengtaianquan,baohurentijiankang,cujinxiandaishengwujishujiankangfazhan,baozhangguojiaanquan。

四、基本原则在生物安全立法中的贯彻

gd视讯woguomuqiankaizhandezonghexingshengwuanquanlifagongzuo,shizaiguangyide“shengwuanquan”guanniankuangjiaxiazhankaide。conggongkaiziliaokan,qizhuyaoguizhineirongbaokuo: fangkongzhongdaxinfatufachuanranbing、dongzhiwuyiqing;yanjiu、kaifa、yingyongshengwujishu;baozhangshiyanshishengwuanquan;baozhangwoguoshengwuziyuanherenleiyichuanziyuandeanquan;fangfanwailaiwuzhongruqinyubaohushengwuduoyangxing;yingduiweishengwunaiyao;fangfanshengwukongbuxiji;fangyushengwuwuqiweixie。

zaizhidingzonghexingdeshengwuanquanlifaguochengzhong,yingguanchefengxianyufangyuanze、jinshenfazhanyuanzehequanchengguanliyuanze。zheijiuyaoqiu,youguanzhuguanbumenzhijianzailifaguochengzhongshixianyouxiaodexiediaoyupeihe。tongshi,zheiyilifayingconglifamude、falvyuanze、guizhifanwei、guanlitizhi、jutideguanlizhiduhecuoshi、jiufenchuli、falvzerendengfangmianzuochuguiding,jiangzheisanxiangjibenyuanzeguanchuanshizhong。lingwai,guanlitizhicengmiandebumenzhizejiqixiediao、falvzhiduyucuoshidekexuexinghehelixing、yuxianyoudediweijiedezhuanmenlifahexiangguanlifazhijiandeyoujixianjiedengwenti,junxutebieguanzhu。


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